Students should understand image formation by plane or spherical mirrors, so they can:

Plane mirrors

a) Locate by ray tracing the image of an object formed by a plane mirror, and determine whether the image is real or virtual, upright or inverted, enlarged or reduced in size.

b) Relate the focal point of a spherical mirror to its center of curvature.

c) Locate by ray tracing the image of a real object, given a diagram of a mirror with the focal point shown, and determine whether the image is real or virtual, upright or inverted, enlarged or reduced in size.

d) Use the mirror equation to relate the object distance, image distance, and focal length for a lens, and determine the image size in terms of the object size.

a) Determine whether the focal length of a lens is increased or decreased as a result of a change in the curvature of its surfaces, or in the index of refraction of the material of which the lens is made, or the medium in which it is immersed.

b) Determine by ray tracing the location of the image of a real object located inside or outside the focal point of the lens, and state whether the resulting image is upright or inverted, real or virtual.

c) Use the thin lens equation to relate the object distance, image distance, and focal length for a lens, and determine the image size in terms of the object size.

d) Analyze simple situations in which the image formed by one lens serves as the object for another lens.

Chapter 23: Geometric optics (Mirrors & Lenses)Study guide - Geometric optics

## 23.1: Plane mirrors and 23.2: Spherical mirrors

Tutorial (Univ. of California) - Mirrors

Students should understand image formation by plane or spherical mirrors, so they can:

## Plane mirrors

a) Locate by ray tracing the image of an object formed by a plane mirror, and determine whether the image is real or virtual, upright or inverted, enlarged or reduced in size.Video tutorial (Khan Academy) - Virtual image

## Spherical mirrors

b) Relate the focal point of a spherical mirror to its center of curvature.c) Locate by ray tracing the image of a real object, given a diagram of a mirror with the focal point shown, and determine whether the image is real or virtual, upright or inverted, enlarged or reduced in size.

Video tutorial (Khan Academy) - Convex parabolic mirrors

Video tutorial (Khan Academy) - Parabolic mirrors & real images

Video tutorial (Khan Academy) - Parabolic mirrors #2

## Mirror equation

d) Use the mirror equation to relate the object distance, image distance, and focal length for a lens, and determine the image size in terms of the object size.## 23.3: Lenses

Tutorial (Univ. of California) - Lenses

Students should understand image formation by converging or diverging lenses, so they can:

a) Determine whether the focal length of a lens is increased or decreased as a result of a change in the curvature of its surfaces, or in the index of refraction of the material of which the lens is made, or the medium in which it is immersed.

b) Determine by ray tracing the location of the image of a real object located inside or outside the focal point of the lens, and state whether the resulting image is upright or inverted, real or virtual.

Website (Hyper-physics) - Ray tracing for lenses

c) Use the thin lens equation to relate the object distance, image distance, and focal length for a lens, and determine the image size in terms of the object size.

d) Analyze simple situations in which the image formed by one lens serves as the object for another lens.

Virtual lab (PhET @ Colorado) - Geometric Optics

Video tutorial (Khan Academy) - Convex lenses

Video tutorial (Khan Academy) - Convex lens examples

Video tutorial (Khan Academy) - Concave lenses

Video tutorial (Khan Academy) - Object Image and Focal Distance Relationship (Proof of Formula)

Video tutorial (Khan Academy) - Object Image Height and Distance Relationship

Mini lab - title

AP lab - title

Virtual lab (PhET @ Colorado) - title

Video - title

Video (Eureka) - title

Video (MIT) - title

Video (UC Berkley, Physics 10) - title

Video (The Mechanical Universe) - title