Chapter 12: Laws of thermodynamics

Study guide - Thermal physics

Tutorial (Univ. of California) - Laws of thermodynamics


Students should know how to apply the zeroth law of thermodynamics, so they can:
  1. Define a thermodynamic system as either open, closed or isolated.
  2. Use physical quantities to describe the state of a system.
  3. Differentiate between reversible and irreversible processes.

Video (MIT) - 5.60 Lecture 1: State of a system & zeroth law

Topic 12.2: The first law of thermodynamics

Students should know how to apply the first law of thermodynamics, so they can:
  1. Relate the heat absorbed by a gas, the work performed by the gas, and the internal energy change of the gas for any of the processes above.
  2. Relate the work performed by a gas in a cyclic process to the area enclosed by a curve on a PV diagram.

Article (Pop-sci) - Self chilling can & super cooler

Topic 12.3: Thermodynamic processes for an ideal gas4StrokeEngine_Ortho_3D_Small.gif

Students should know how to apply the ideal gas law and thermodynamic principles, so they can:
  1. Relate the pressure and volume of a gas during an isothermal expansion or compression.
  2. Relate the pressure and temperature of a gas during constant-volume heating or cooling, or the volume and temperature during constant-pressure heating or cooling.
  3. Calculate the work performed on or by a gas during an expansion or compression at constant pressure.
  4. Understand the process of adiabatic expansion or compression of a gas.
  5. Identify or sketch on a PV diagram the curves that represent each of the above processes.

Tutor video (freelanceteach) - thermodynamic processes 1, thermodynamic processes 2, and thermodynamic processes 3
Website (hyperphysics) - engine cycles

Hyper-physics: Heat engine cycle

Video - Solving complete PV cycles

Wikipedia - Internal combustion engine (Otto cycle)

Website - Animated engines

Video - Rubber band heat engine

How stuff works - Steam engine
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Topic 12.4: The second law of thermodynamics

Students should understand the second law of thermodynamics, the concept of entropy, and heat engines and the Carnot cycle, so they can:
  1. Determine whether entropy will increase, decrease, or remain the same during a particular situation.
  2. Compute the maximum possible efficiency of a heat engine operating between two given temperatures.
  3. Compute the actual efficiency of a heat engine.
  4. Relate the heats exchanged at each thermal reservoir in a Carnot cycle to the temperatures of the reservoirs.

Video - Entropy can explain the end of our universe

Topic 12.5: Heat engines and thermal heat pumps


Website - Thermal efficiency

Website (hyper-physics) - Heat pump

Website - Geothermal heat pump

Hyper-physics - The Otto cycle

Topic 12.6: The Carnot cycle and thermal pumps


third law of thermodynamics

Animation (NOVA) - How low can you go (how they reach low temperatures)

Mini lab - title

AP lab - title

Virtual lab (PhET @ Colorado) - title

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Video (Eureka) - title

Video (MIT) - title

Video (UC Berkley, Physics 10) - title

Video (The Mechanical Universe) - title